Difficulties of Disabled Employees in Turkey, Their Legal Status and Things to Consider Regarding Their Health

Difficulties of Disabled Employees in Turkey, Their Legal Status and Things to Consider Regarding Their Health

Difficulties of Disabled Employees in Turkey, Their Legal Status and Things to Consider Regarding Their Health

Difficulties of Disabled Employees in Turkey, Their Legal Status and Things to Consider About Their Health

The participation of disabled individuals in working life is an important indicator of social equality and human rights. There are various legal regulations in Turkey to protect the rights of disabled employees and regulate their working conditions. In this article, the legal status, rights and health issues of disabled employees in Turkey will be detailed.

An important part of society. Being excluded from working life for people with disabilities causes social consequences as well as economic problems. In addition, disabled people's acceptance by society as individuals and their desire and efforts to achieve their own economic independence should be supported. In this way, disabled people will escape from low welfare levels with the income they earn, integrate into society and contribute to the development of the country. In this context, in Article 61 of the Constitution; “The State takes measures to ensure the protection of disabled people and their integration into social life.” By including the statement, disabled people are constitutionally guaranteed.

Legal Regulations in Turkey

Various legal regulations have been made in Turkey to minimize the difficulties faced by disabled individuals in working life and to protect their rights. Here are some of these regulations:

  • Law on Disabled People (Law No. 5378):
    • Right to Work: Disabled individuals have an obligation to be employed. According to this law, at least 3% of the employees in public and private sector workplaces with 50 or more employees. Must be disabled.
    • Training and Adaptation Courses: Disabled individuals are encouraged to receive vocational training and adaptation courses are organized at workplaces.
    • Accessibility: It is mandatory that public buildings and public transportation vehicles be made accessible to individuals with disabilities.
  • Labor Law (Law No. 4857):
    • Rights of Disabled Employees: According to the Labor Law, working conditions of disabled employees must be equal to other employees. Additionally, discrimination against disabled employees is prohibited.
    • Regulating Working Conditions: It is necessary to make necessary arrangements in the workplace in accordance with the needs of disabled employees. This covers a variety of arrangements, from physical accessibility to flexibility of working hours.
  • Occupational Health and Safety Law (Law No. 6331):
    • Risk Assessment: Risk assessment should be carried out in workplaces where disabled employees work and necessary precautions should be taken.
    • Occupational Health and Safety Training: Disabled employees should benefit from occupational health and safety training.
  • Civil Servants Law (Law No. 657):
    • Employment in the Public Sector: Employment of disabled individuals in the public sector is encouraged and the working conditions of these individuals are regulated.
    • ÖDisability&uum; Civil Servant Selection Examination (MSS): Special exams are organized for disabled individuals to be employed in the public sector.


    The participation of disabled employees in the workforce may vary depending on the type of disability. The most common types of disabilities in Turkey and the world and the difficulties experienced by individuals with these types of disabilities in their working lives can be summarized as follows:

  • Physical Disabilities
  • Physical disabilities are one of the most common types of disabilities and often include conditions such as limited mobility, musculoskeletal problems, or limb loss.

    • Orthopedic Disabilities: Situations such as difficulty in walking, use of a wheelchair, limited movement in arms or legs.
    • Spinal Cord Injuries: These types of injuries can cause permanent limitation of movement in certain parts of the body.
    • Chronic Diseases: Long-term health problems such as rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis.

    Difficulties Encountered in Working Life:

    • Accessibility: Physical accessibility of workplaces is especially important for individuals using wheelchairs.
    • Ergonomic Arrangements: Work areas, tables and equipment need to be arranged ergonomically.
    1. Visual Impairments

    Visually impaired individuals may face conditions such as complete blindness or partial vision loss.

    • Total Blindness: Lack of any ability to see.
    • Partial Vision Loss: Partial vision loss such as low vision or blurred vision.

    Difficulties Encountered in Working Life:

    • Technological Aids: Technological aids such as screen readers, braille keyboards, and magnification software need to be provided.
    • Training and Adaptation: Adaptation training should be provided to ensure that visually impaired individuals have access to written and visual materials in the workplace.
    1. Hearing Impairments

    Hearing impaired individuals may encounter conditions such as complete hearing loss or partial hearing loss.

    • Complete Hearing Loss: No sound can be heard.
    • Partial Hearing Loss: Partial hearing of sounds or perceiving only loud sounds.

    Difficulties Encountered in Working Life:

    • Communication: Communication aids such as sign language interpreters or written communication tools are required.
    • Security: Safety measures such as visual alarm systems should be taken at the workplace for hearing impaired individuals.
    1. Mental and Psychological Disabilities

    Mental and psychological disabilities include difficulties with cognitive functions or problems with psychological states.

    • Mental Disabilities: Learning difficulties, memory problems, or developmental disorders.
    • Psychological Barriers: Psychological disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder.

    Difficulties Encountered in Working Life:

    • Supportive Environment: A supportive and understanding working environment should be provided for individuals with mental and psychological disabilities.
    • Training and Adaptation: Special training and adaptation processes should be organized so that these individuals can fulfill their duties at work.
    1. Emotional and Behavioral Barriers

    These types of disabilities include problems with an individual's emotional states or behavior.

    • Emotional Obstacles: Emotional problems such as excessive stress, fear, anxiety.
    • Behavioral Disabilities: Behavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Difficulties Encountered in Working Life:

    • Workload Management: Workload management for these individuals to avoid excessive stress and anxiety. It should be managed carefully.
    • Psychological Support: Psychological support services should be provided at the workplace and the emotional health of these individuals should be supported.

    Statistics in Turkey

    When the statistics regarding the participation of disabled individuals in the workforce in Turkey are examined, it is seen that physical disabilities are the most common type of disability. It seems that it is. According to the data of the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services, physical disabilities are more common than visual and hearing disabilities. However, mental and psychological disabilities also have a significant share in the workforce.

    Supportive Practices in Working Life

    • Disability Quotas: The obligation to employ disabled employees at certain rates in the public and private sectors.
    • Vocational Training and Rehabilitation: Vocational training programs and rehabilitation services are offered to increase the participation of disabled individuals in the workforce.
    • Workplace Accessibility: Making buildings and facilities accessible to individuals with disabilities is encouraged.
    • Tax Deductions and Incentives: Tax deductions and other incentives are offered to employers who employ disabled employees.

    The participation of disabled individuals in working life is of great importance in terms of social equality and human rights. Various legal regulations have been made in Turkey in order to protect the rights of disabled employees and improve their working conditions. The types of obstacles that disabled employees most commonly encounter are physical, visual, hearing, mental and psychological disabilities. Making the necessary arrangements for these types of disabilities in workplaces ensures that disabled individuals can work healthily and efficiently. In this context, ergonomic regulations, accessibility, communication supports and psychological support services play an important role. Increasing the participation of disabled individuals in the workforce and their ability to work under equal conditions in workplaces is of critical importance in terms of social development and welfare.

    Things to Consider for Health

    It is of great importance for disabled employees to be in a healthy and safe working environment, both for their individual health and for the efficiency of the workplace. In this context, the points to be considered are as follows:

  • Ergonomic Adjustments:
    • Arrangement of the Workspace: Workspaces that suit the physical needs of disabled employees should be created. For example, the desk height should be adjusted for an employee using a wheelchair, and computer equipment should be ergonomic.
    • Special Hardware and Equipment: Special hardware and equipment suitable for the needs of disabled employees should be available in the workplace. This may include a variety of technological tools, such as hearing aids, special keyboards, or screen readers.
  • Accessibility:
    • Accessibility of Buildings and Facilities: Building entrances, elevators, toilets and other common areas should be accessible so that disabled employees can easily access the workplace.
    • Transportation and Transportation: Solutions (service vehicles, special transportation services, etc.) should be offered to facilitate disabled employees' transportation to the workplace.
  • Health and Safety Training:
    • Special Training Programs: Special training programs on occupational health and safety should be organized for disabled employees. These trainings include both general safety measures and specific training for individuals with disabilities. It should include risk factors.
    • Emergency Plans: Special plans should be created for emergencies in the workplace and disabled employees should be provided with access to these plans.
  • Psychological Support and Well-Being:
    • Psychosocial Support: Consultancy services should be provided so that disabled employees can receive psychological support at work. These services should cover stress management, combating mobbing and work-life balance.
    • Workload and Stress Management: The workload of disabled employees should be arranged in accordance with their physical and psychological capacities. Stress management techniques and creating a positive environment at work will increase the productivity of employees.
  • Regular Health Checks:
    • Periodic Examinations: Disabled employees should be ensured to undergo regular health checks. These checks are important in terms of monitoring the individual's health status and detecting possible problems early.
    • Occupational Physician and Nurse: Having an occupational physician and nurse at the workplace is beneficial in terms of constantly monitoring the health status of disabled employees and rapid intervention in emergency situations.
  • Flexibility of Working Hours:
    • Flexible Working Arrangements: Flexible working hours or working from home opportunities should be offered to disabled employees according to their needs. This is especially important for employees who have chronic health problems or require regular treatment.
    • Rest Periods: The needs of disabled employees; Appropriate rest areas and adequate breaks should be provided so that they can rest whenever they hear.

    The legal rights and working conditions of disabled employees in Turkey are secured by various legal regulations. Legislations such as the Law on Disabled People No. 5378, the Labor Law No. 4857 and the Occupational Health and Safety Law No. 6331 ensure that disabled individuals have equal working conditions and the necessary precautions are taken in the workplace. Things to consider in terms of health include elements such as ergonomic regulations, accessibility, health and safety training, psychological support, regular health checks and flexible working hours. It is critical for disabled employees to be in a healthy and productive working environment for both individual and corporate success. Therefore, it is a great responsibility for employers to act in accordance with legal regulations and take into account the needs of disabled employees.

    Üniversal OSGB
    Occupational Safety and Worker Health Center

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