OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY DICTIONARY

A glossary of terms that brings together occupational health and safety terminology, providing a common resource that can be consulted when needed.

A

Emergency: Refers to situations caused by events considered as disasters or events caused by negligence, carelessness, neglect, intent, and various other reasons.

Emergency team: The team responsible for evacuating the building in case of fire, earthquake, and similar disasters, making the initial intervention, participating in search and rescue and extinguishing operations, and providing first aid if necessary.

Emergency plans: Plans that show how and by whom the tasks and operations of intervention, protection, search and rescue, and first aid will be carried out during emergencies and need to be prepared in advance.

Low voltage (LV): The voltage between phases with an effective value of 1000 volts or below.

Allergic substance: Substances that have the characteristic of causing extreme sensitivity when inhaled or absorbed through the skin and cause characteristic adverse effects upon subsequent exposure.

Flammable substance: Liquid substances with a flash point between 21 °C and 55 °C.

Flash point: The lowest temperature at which the vapors from a heated substance can sustain combustion when briefly exposed to an ignition source.

Subcontractor: A real or legal person or an institution or organization without legal personality that takes on auxiliary work related to the production of goods or services carried out at a workplace, or a part of the main work that requires expertise due to the nature of the business or technological reasons, and employs workers assigned for this job only in the work taken at this workplace.

Mediation: A peaceful resolution method conducted by a third party to contribute to the resolution of collective labor disputes, aiming to merge the views of the disputing parties and reconcile them.

Asbestos: A mixture containing one or several fibrous silicate minerals from the serpentine or amphibole groups, such as actinolite, amosite (brown asbestos), anthophyllite (white asbestos), crocidolite (blue asbestos).

Asbestosis: Bronchopulmonary fibrosis caused by asbestos dust.

Main employer: A real or legal person or an institution or organization without legal personality that gives auxiliary work related to the production of goods or services carried out at the workplace, or a part of the main work that requires expertise due to the nature of the business or technological reasons, to another employer, and employs workers in the main job itself.

Corrosive substance: Substances that can cause tissue damage upon contact with living tissue.

Class A fires: Fires involving combustible solid materials such as wood, coal, paper, grass, documents, and plastic.

B

Class B fires: Fires involving combustible liquid materials such as gasoline, benzol, machine oils, lacquers, oil-based paints, tar, and asphalt.

Balthazard Formula: A calculation method used for combining the degrees of permanent incapacity resulting from multiple work accidents or occupational diseases or multiple disability degrees.

Pressurized equipment: Components such as vessels, pipes, safety and pressure accessories, and other elements like flanges, nozzles, couplings, supports, and lifting lugs attached to the pressurized parts of the equipment if applicable.

Fixed-term employment contract: Employment contracts with a predetermined start and end date.

Indefinite-term employment contract: Employment contracts with a predetermined start date but no predetermined end date.

Berylliosis: Widespread bronchopneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of beryllium dust.

Byssinosis: Fibrosis characterized by asthma attacks occurring periodically, caused by inhalation of cotton fibers, leaves, flax, and hemp dust.

Brucellosis: A disease known to be transmitted from cows through raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products. However, dogs are a significant secondary source for brucellosis. Infected dogs are continuous carriers. Spontaneous abortions are the first indicators of brucellosis. Transmission occurs orally and through mucous membranes. Male dogs acquire the infection through mating with infected female dogs. Additionally, transmission occurs through licking the vulva of infected females and consuming their urine. Females also contract the disease through mating and oral ingestion of the bacteria. Therefore, female dogs should be checked for brucellosis before breeding. The disease is characterized by fever attacks that rise and do not subside with treatment. Deaths can occur despite treatment.

Whole-body vibration: Mechanical vibration that, when transmitted to the entire body, poses risks to workers' health and safety, particularly causing discomfort in the lumbar region and trauma to the spine.

Major accident: An incident involving one or more hazardous substances, resulting in significant emissions, fire, or explosion, caused by uncontrolled developments during the operation of any establishment, which poses immediate or delayed serious danger to human health and the environment inside or outside the establishment.

C

Class C fires: Refers to fires involving flammable gas substances such as methane, propane, butane, LPG, acetylene, town gas, and hydrogen.

Punishment: The sanction prescribed by law for someone who commits a crime.

Ç

Work certificate: A document that the employer is obliged to give to a worker who leaves their job, showing the type and duration of their work.

Environmentally hazardous substance: Substances that pose immediate or long-term dangers to one or more elements of the environment when they enter the environment.

Environmental noise: Harmful or unwanted outdoor sounds resulting from human activities, including noise spread to the environment from transportation vehicles, road traffic, rail traffic, air traffic, sea traffic, outdoor equipment, construction sites, industrial facilities, workshops, manufacturing places, workplaces, recreational, and entertainment places.

Environmental vibration: Mechanical oscillations felt by the human body, arising from activities such as mining and quarry operations, transportation vehicles, industrial, and construction machinery, and spreading in solid, liquid, and gas environments.

Highly flammable substance: Substances in liquid form with a flash point below 0°C and a boiling point below 35°C, as well as gaseous substances that can ignite upon contact with air at room temperature and pressure.

Highly toxic substance: Substances that cause acute or chronic harm or death to human health when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin in very small amounts.

D

Impact noise: Noise resulting from the collision of two masses.

Class D fires: Refers to fires involving combustible light and active metals such as lithium, sodium, potassium, aluminum, and magnesium, as well as radioactive metals.

Disciplinary punishment: A punishment applied to individuals within a certain status for violating rules related to service and internal order.

dB: A logarithmic scale used to express quantities meaningfully that differ by orders of magnitude.

dBA: A sound level measure that gives more weight to the middle and high frequencies to which the human hearing system is most sensitive at low intensities, known as the A-weighted sound level, and commonly used in the evaluation and control of noise exposure.

E

Performance: The behavior that the debtor is obliged to perform.

Hand-arm vibration: Mechanical vibration that, when transmitted to the human hand-arm system, poses a risk to workers' health and safety, especially leading to disorders of blood vessels, bones, joints, nerves, and muscles.

Electrical power installations: Installations that can be dangerous for humans, other living beings, and objects under certain conditions (such as approach, touch, etc.), enabling the generation, modification, storage, transmission, and distribution of electrical energy and its conversion to mechanical energy, light, chemical energy, etc.

Electrician or Installer: Refers to electrical engineers, electrical or electrical-electronics engineers, or electrical technicians responsible for the proper completion of electrical internal installation work in accordance with current laws, regulations, zoning plans, permits, and associated projects, Turkish Standards, technical specifications, occupational safety regulations, and all other relevant legislation, ensuring the robustness, quality, and proper technique of the installation and bearing responsibility for any damage resulting from improper or untechnical execution.

Manual handling: Work involving the lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, or moving of loads by one or more workers by hand or bodily force, or physically assisting such work, which can cause back and spinal injuries to workers due to unfavorable ergonomic conditions and characteristics of the loads.

Mandatory sign: Signs that indicate behavior that must be followed.

Ergonomics: A term derived from Greek words "Ergon" (work) and "Nomos" (law). It involves adapting work to fit the physiological and psychological structure of humans, aiming to protect worker health and increase work efficiency with the most effective working power. Ergonomics focuses on humans and provides the necessary conditions for adapting work to the individual and the individual to the work.

Equivalent noise level (Leq): The constant level equivalent in energy to the fluctuating sound levels measured over a specific period, usually A-weighted.

F

Overtime: Work exceeding 45 hours per week within the conditions specified in the Labor Law.

Termination: The act of ending a legal transaction by will.

Fibrogenic dust: Dust that, when inhaled and accumulated in the lungs, causes tissue changes and functional disorders in the lungs.

Legal capacity: The ability of a person to have rights and obligations through their actions and transactions.

G

General Health Insurance: It is insurance that primarily ensures the protection of individuals' health and finances the expenses incurred in case of health risks.

Noise: Undesirable sound is referred to as noise. Noise affects the mind, nervous system, and sense of hearing. The unit of sound intensity is the decibel (dB), indicated by dB letters. Zero (0) decibel is the hearing threshold (limit). This means we do not hear sounds below zero decibels. Sounds above 75 decibels are dangerous. Effects on our nervous and mental systems include reduced concentration, attention, and reaction capacity. Symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disorders, headaches, and circulatory system disorders are observed. These symptoms vary depending on various factors of noise, for example, high-frequency sounds are more effective than low-frequency sounds. The effects on hearing function depend on exposure time, noise intensity, frequency, intermittency (e.g., hammer blows), age of the individual, individual sensitivities, status of the inner ear in terms of function, and pre-existing or ongoing illnesses. Individuals exposed to severe noise experience temporary deafness first, which can later progress to increasing hearing impairments and complete deafness. Deafness initially occurs against high-frequency tones around 4000 Hertz (Hz) where the ear is sensitive, and later, it is observed at other frequencies.

The threshold value at which noise is harmful to human health is considered to be 85 dB. Necessary safety measures should be taken when working in places with noise levels above 85 dB. Noise causes discomfort, distraction, and eventually hearing loss in those using air chisels, saws, planers, crushing machines, etc.

Service Fee: It is a fee system based on providing a service that needs to be done and receiving a predetermined fee in return.

Safety and Health Signs: These are signs that provide information about occupational health and safety through special signs, colors, audible and/or visual signals, verbal communication, or hand-arm signals, indicating a specific purpose, activity, or situation, warning against hazards, or giving instructions.

H

Right: It is a legally protected interest.

Capacity to Have Rights: It is the ability to be a rights and obligations holder.

Tort: These are actions that are not tolerated by the legal system and cause harm.

Hydrocarbons: The incomplete combustion of petrol used in motor vehicles causes the release of hydrocarbons such as ethylene (C2H4) and benzene (C6H6) into the environment. These hydrocarbons have harmful effects on the eyes and respiratory system when they react with other chemical substances in the air.

Service Contract: It is a contract where a person undertakes to provide services for a specified or unspecified period in exchange for payment, and the service remains under the control of the employer, who also undertakes to pay a fee.

Employment Contract: It is a contract where the worker undertakes to work for a specified or unspecified period, and the employer undertakes to pay a fee in return.

Law: It is the set of regulatory rules that regulate the relationships between individuals in social life and derive their enforcement power from the state, and compliance is mandatory.

Legal Act: It is an event that results in legal consequences and occurs through human will.

İ

Discharge: It is a document showing that an employee has no outstanding claims from the workplace.

Performance: It is the fulfillment of the obligation owed.

Negligence: It is the failure to show due care.

Causality: It is the relationship between a cause and its resulting effect.

First Aid: It refers to non-medical interventions carried out on-site without medical tools to save lives or prevent a situation from worsening until medical help is provided in the event of an accident or life-threatening situation.

Inert Dust: It refers to dust particles that reach the lungs through respiration but do not cause functional disorders in the lungs.

Occupational Health and Safety Specialist: It is a person who has obtained Occupational Health and Safety Specialist certification by participating in training and exams organized by the Ministry of Labor and Social Security and is responsible for occupational health and safety activities within the organization through appointment via the Ministry's system.

Labor Law: It is the branch of law that regulates working life, the rights and obligations of workers and employers.

Work Accident: It is an accident that occurs suddenly and externally during work or due to the nature of the work, causing physical or mental harm to the insured while under the authority of the employer.

Employer's Representative: They are authorized individuals who manage the work on behalf of the employer.

Workplace Health and Safety Unit (WHSU): It is a unit established in the workplace to carry out occupational health and safety services, equipped with necessary equipment and personnel.

Occupational Health and Safety Committee: It is a committee selected from employees to evaluate and determine the hazards and precautions related to occupational health and safety, provide guidance to employees, according to the regulations published in the Official Gazette dated 18.01.2013 and numbered 28532 for workplaces with more than 50 employees.

Occupational Health and Safety Worker Representative: They are authorized employees in the workplace who participate in occupational health and safety activities, monitor activities, request measures to be taken, make proposals, and represent employees in similar matters.

Workplace Doctor: They are individuals authorized by the Ministry to work in the field of occupational health and safety, responsible for managing health policies in the workplace.

Workplace: It is a place where material and immaterial elements are organized together to produce goods or services, where the worker and employer are organized under the same management, and includes locations directly related to the workplace (workplace-related places) such as relaxation, breastfeeding, meals, sleep, bathing, examination and care, physical and occupational training locations, and courtyards.

K

Leakage Current: If the bodies of operating tools are connected as conductors from the active parts of the operating elements to non-active parts, such as the body, during operation to the midpoint of the current system, or directly to a grounded network point or to the ground itself, the current passing through the operating element during operation is called leakage current. As a result, leakage current is the current flowing from a faultless current circuit during operation to the ground or to a foreign conducting part.

Cadmium: Cadmium (Cd) is a silver-white metal. Cadmium rapidly oxidizes in the air. Inorganic salts of cadmium such as cadmium sulfate, cadmium nitrate, cadmium chloride dissolve in water. If the concentration of cadmium fume in the air exceeds 1 mg/m3, acute effects on respiration can be observed. Due to its low excretion and accumulation in the body, negative effects on health are observed over time. The organs most affected by long-term exposure are the kidneys. Studies have shown that if the concentration of cadmium accumulated in the kidneys (based on age weight) reaches 200 mg/kg, there is impairment in kidney functions. The damage to the kidneys is irreversible. The influence of cadmium on the formation of lung and prostate cancer has been definitively established. The World Health Organization recommends that the concentration of cadmium in the air should not exceed 1-5 ng/m3 in rural areas and 10-20 ng/m3 in urban and industrial areas where agricultural activities are absent, to protect human health.

Carcinogenic Substance: Substances that cause or accelerate cancer formation when inhaled, ingested orally, or penetrate the skin.

Law: It is a written, general, continuous, and abstract legal rule enacted by the legislative body under this title.

Decree with Force of Law: Written legal rules enacted by the Council of Ministers based on the authorization law issued by the Turkish Grand National Assembly to regulate certain issues.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Despite being a gas, due to its special importance and danger, we decided to address it under a separate heading. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, colorless, odorless gas with no irritating properties. It can cause poisoning either accidentally or intentionally (suicidal). Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs by ingesting and inhaling substances containing butane gas, coal stoves and heaters, smoke (including cigarette smoke), automobile exhaust (a car running in a small and closed garage produces a lethal level of carbon monoxide within 15-30 minutes), methylene chloride, iodide, bromide, and similar substances.

Intent: It is the will to perform an act that is not permitted by the legal system knowingly and willingly.

Severance Pay: It is the monetary payment made by the employer based on the duration of the employee's work and the manner in which the employment contract ends.

Short-Time Work: It refers to the temporary reduction of the working hours in the workplace by at least one-third or the complete or partial cessation of activity without the condition of continuity for at least four weeks.

Chemical Substance: It refers to all elements, compounds, or mixtures that occur naturally, are produced, or arise during any process or as waste or accidental occurrences.

Personal Right: It is the right related to all material and spiritual aspects of a person's existence and aimed at freely developing this existence.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): 1) Any device, tool, or material designed to be worn or carried by individuals to protect against one or more health and safety hazards, 2) A combination of several devices, tools, or materials made into a whole by the manufacturer to protect the individual against multiple potential risks simultaneously, 3) Protective devices, tools, or materials used in conjunction with the worn or carried equipment for a specific activity, regardless of protection, which may be separable or inseparable.

Readily Flammable Substance: 1) Solid substances that can be heated to ignition by air at room temperature without energy application and ignite as a result, 2) Solid substances that can self-ignite briefly in contact with a flame source and continue to burn after the flame source is removed, 3) Liquid substances with a flashpoint below 21 °C, 4) Substances that emit a dangerous amount of easily flammable gas upon contact with water or moist air.

Lead: It is a soft metal with a bluish or silver-gray color. Due to the use of organic components such as tetraethyl or tetramethyl as fuel additives, they are important as pollutant parameters. Both tetraethyl lead and tetramethyl lead are colorless liquids with boiling points of 110°C and 200°C, respectively. Because they are more volatile than other petroleum components, they increase the volatility of the fuel to which they are added. Due to its interaction with different enzyme systems, lead accumulation in many organs or systems forms focal points. Adverse health effects are observed when the lead concentration in the blood exceeds 0.2 µg/ml. With blood lead concentration;

inhibition of blood synthesis occurs when it exceeds the 0.2 µg/ml limit, reduction in sensory and motor nerve communication speed within the limits of 0.3-0.8 µg/ml, and irreversible brain damage in adults has been determined to occur after exceeding the 1.2 µg/ml limit. There is a linear relationship between the lead concentration in the air and the lead concentration in the blood. It has been determined that an air concentration of 1 µg/m3 of lead produces a concentration of 0.01-0.02 µg/ml in the blood. The background blood lead concentration in humans is 0.04-0.06 µg/ml, and in urban areas, it is 0.1 µg/ml. The World Health Organization recommends that the concentration of lead in the air should not exceed 0.5-1 µg/m3 to prevent adverse health effects, with a target of 0.1 µg/ml blood lead concentration limit.

Quartz: It refers to the free crystalline composition (SiO2).

L

Leptospirosis: This infection, with a clinical presentation that varies significantly, starts with fever and results in renal failure. Impaired kidney function leads to uremia. The main symptoms include weakness, lethargy, depression, loss of appetite, diarrhea, vomiting, inflammation of the mouth and eye mucosa, abnormal neurological signs, and clotting disorders leading to death. Transmission occurs through the urine of infected dogs and rats.

Lockout: It refers to the collective removal of workers from work by the employer or their representative, either voluntarily or following a decision by an employer organization, in a manner that will completely stop the activities at the workplace.

M

Material Damages Lawsuit: It is a lawsuit filed by a person whose personality rights have been unlawfully attacked, seeking compensation for the material damages suffered as a result of this attack.

Moral Damages Lawsuit: It is a lawsuit filed by a person whose personality rights have been unlawfully attacked, seeking to alleviate the sorrow and shame caused by this attack.

Disability: It refers to the permanent loss of part or all of the workforce, disability. It is a condition caused by illness, disability, or aging, which cannot be quickly healed.

Occupational Disease: It refers to a temporary or permanent illness, physical or mental impairment, occurring repeatedly due to the nature of the insured's work or the conditions under which the work is carried out.

Legislation: It encompasses laws, regulations, and other legal sources.

Mutagenic Substance: These are substances that can cause or accelerate genetic damage when inhaled, ingested orally, or absorbed through the skin.

Collusion: It refers to the parties' agreement to perform an act that does not correspond to their true intentions in order to deceive third parties, but with the understanding that this apparent act will not be valid.

Force Majeure: It refers to an event that cannot be foreseen and prevented in advance, arising from an external factor.

Sanction: It is the response encountered when rules are not followed.

Preparation: It includes all measures planned and taken to eliminate or reduce occupational health and safety risks at all stages of work in the workplace.

P

Explosive Substance: These are solid, liquid, paste-like, or gelatinous substances that can undergo sudden gas release without atmospheric oxygen, or self-explode with heating when partially confined, or explode under specified test conditions, especially with combustible materials, and cause significant exothermic reactions upon contact with other substances.

Explosive Atmosphere: It refers to a mixture of flammable substances such as gases, vapors, mists, and dust with air under atmospheric conditions that can ignite completely upon contact with any ignition source.

R

Radiation (Ionizing and Non-Ionizing): These include X-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light, infrared rays, microwaves, radio waves, and magnetic fields, which are parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. They are characterized by their frequencies and wavelengths. Ultraviolet and X-rays have very high frequencies, giving them the energy to break chemical bonds. This breaking of bonds is called ionization. Ionizing electromagnetic radiations carry enough energy to fragment the genetic material of cells, specifically DNA, leading to cell death. This results in tissue damage. Even slight damage to DNA can cause permanent changes that can lead to cancer. Radioactive materials in mining deposits, natural water sources, and soil can enter the food chain (plants), leading to various diseases resulting in death for animals and humans. Radioactive pollutants particularly affect human, animal, and plant health negatively, disrupting the environment and ecological balance. Additionally, radiation can lead to genetic changes in living organisms. The effects of radiation vary depending on gender, age, and organ. Children and young people in growth stages are most affected, especially the eyes, causing visual impairment, cataracts, and slowing of eye coordination. The skin is more resistant to radiation.

Near Miss: It refers to an incident in the workplace where there is potential to cause harm to workers, the workplace, or equipment but does not result in actual harm. These are events we commonly refer to in everyday life as "almost happened."

Recreational Area: It refers to extensive areas that include various activities such as rest, entertainment, outings, and leisure time utilization, enabling individuals to recover physically and psychologically.

Risk: It refers to the probability of loss, injury, or other harmful consequences arising from danger.

Risk Analysis: It refers to the systematic use of existing information to determine how frequently identified risks can occur and the magnitude of their consequences.

Risk Assessment: It refers to the overall process of identifying existing or potential hazards at the workplace, analyzing the factors that turn these hazards into risks, analyzing and grading the risks arising from these hazards, and determining control measures.

Risk Assessment Support Team: It is a team composed of individuals working in areas where the risk factor is high in terms of occupational health and safety conditions, who are well-acquainted with the area due to their job, and selected with the approval of the Unit Manager.

S

Sound Pressure Level (Lp): It represents the value expressed in dB that is obtained by multiplying the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of the measured sound pressure at a certain point in the environment to the reference sound pressure of 20x10-6 Pa or 20 µPa by 20.

Sound Power Level (Lw): It represents the value expressed in dB that is obtained by multiplying the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of the sound power emitted by a sound source to the internationally defined reference sound power by 10.

Insurance: It is a bilateral contract made with an organization dealing with this process in exchange for a pre-paid premium to eliminate any potential damage that something or someone may encounter in the future from any aspect.

Insured: It refers to the person for whom premiums must be paid in terms of short and/or long-term insurance branches or who must pay premiums on their behalf.

Civil defense: It refers to all unarmed protective and rescue measures and activities to be taken to minimize the loss of life and property of the public against enemy attacks, to protect and improve all kinds of vital official and private facilities and organizations, to ensure the continuity of their activities, to ensure the highest level of support for defense efforts by the public, and to keep the morale of the public high.

Breathable dust: It refers to fibrous (pibroze) asbestos dusts with a certain crystal structure or amorphous dust with an aerodynamic equivalent diameter of (0.5-5) microns, or at least three times the length of its diameter, which are commonly found in the soil in nature and are highly resistant to environmental conditions. They can survive for years in outdoor environments. The microbe causing anthrax terror that shook the world is a specially produced and powdered type in the laboratory. Depending on the mode of transmission, three types of anthrax disease can be mentioned:

1. Cutaneous Anthrax,

2. Inhalational Anthrax,

3. Gastrointestinal Anthrax,

The most effective method of protection against anthrax is vaccination. Especially those dealing with large and small livestock and farm work constitute the most important risk groups, so these individuals must be vaccinated during epidemic times.

 

Ş

Anthrax: Anthrax is a bacterial infection disease seen in animals that graze on grass. The microbe causing the disease is found in soil and pastures. The microbe enters the animal's digestive system and then into the blood, causing all of the animal's organs to fail. The most important feature of the anthrax microbe is the "spore," which forms extremely resistant structures to the external environment. These spores are commonly found in the soil in nature and are highly resistant to environmental conditions. They can survive for years in outdoor environments. The transmission of anthrax from person to person is very unlikely; the transmission from an infected animal to a human occurs as follows:

1. Through contact with anthrax lesion on the animal

2. By eating the meat of an anthrax-infected animal

3. By inhaling the air containing anthrax spores Anthrax bacteria can survive up to 120°C, and the disease does not pass from meats cooked above 120°C. Since anthrax spores are generally between 1 and 10 microns in size, they can remain suspended in the air for a long time and can be transmitted from air to humans through respiration. The microbe used in the anthrax terror that shook the world is a specially produced and powdered type in the laboratory. Depending on the mode of transmission, three types of anthrax disease can be mentioned:

1. Cutaneous Anthrax,

2. Inhalational Anthrax,

3. Gastrointestinal Anthrax,

The most effective method of protection against anthrax is vaccination. Especially those dealing with large and small livestock and farm work constitute the most important risk groups, so these individuals must be vaccinated during epidemic times.

 

T

Hazard: It is the potential to cause harm or damage to employees or workplaces that exist in the workplace or that may come from outside.

High Voltage: It is the voltage between phases that has an effective value above 1000 volts.

Hazard Class: It is the hazard group determined as low hazardous, hazardous, and highly hazardous considering the nature of the work performed, the substances used or produced at every stage of the work, work equipment, working methods and styles, working environment, and conditions related to other aspects of occupational health and safety.

Vibration: These are vibrations that occur in the workplace in machines, benches, tools, and equipment, or in installed systems or buildings. For example, in compressors used in drilling operations, in flour mills, vibration is very intense in high-speed machines not placed on suitable ground. The presence of vibration tires and irritates workers. It has been observed that workers using compressors in drilling operations lose sensitivity in their fingers and develop inflammations.

Tetanus: It is a microbe that can be found very resistantly in nature to external factors. It can be seen in those who work with soil, those who come into contact with rusty iron, etc., cemetery workers, miners, and stone-marble workers. A vaccine should be taken every 5 years to protect against it. There are developed serums for treatment.

Toxic Substance: These are substances that, when inhaled in small amounts, ingested orally, or absorbed through the skin, cause acute or chronic damage or death to human health.

Traffic Signs: These are signs, illuminated and audible signals, floor markings, and movements made by traffic police or other authorities to regulate traffic.

U

Master: It refers to a person who has acquired the knowledge, skills, and work habits required by a profession and who can apply them in the production of goods and services at standards acceptable in working life, can plan production, can solve problems that may arise during production, can express their thoughts in writing, verbally, and through images, can make practical calculations related to production, and has a master's certificate.

Warning Sign: These are signs that warn about situations that may cause or cause harm or damage.

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